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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 109  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 32-40

Prevalence of dry eye disease in southern Egypt: a hospital-based outpatient clinic study

Ophthalmology Department, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Engy M Mostafa
Ophthalmology Department, Sohag University, Sohag 82524
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2090-0686.192749

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Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) in a tertiary ophthalmic outpatient hospital-based clinic in southern Egypt. Patients and methods A cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study of 3128 patients was conducted at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of the Sohag University Hospital, Egypt, between January 2011 and August 2013. The participants comprised adult ophthalmic outpatients aged 18 years or older. DED was assessed subjectively with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and objectively with Schirmer's test, tear film breakup time (TBUT), and conjunctival/corneal staining. An OSDI score of 22 or more with a TBUT of less than 10 s or Schirmer's test reading of less than 10 mm was considered diagnostic of definite DED. Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed. In all comparisons, P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Dry eye disease prevalence was 22.8% in the 3128 patients. DED was significantly more prevalent in patients 45 years or older and in females. An OSDI score more than 22 was found in 55%, TBUT less than 10 s in 44.7%, and Schirmer's test score less than 10 mm in 39.3%. DED symptoms are significantly associated with meibomian gland dysfunction, previous refractive surgery, and diabetes. Definite DED was significantly associated with previous cataract surgery, ocular allergy, pterygium, and diabetes. Conclusion This is the first observational study of DED in southern Egypt on a large sample population. The prevalence of DED among ophthalmic outpatients at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt, was 22.8% depending on both symptoms and signs. Older age patients and females were more susceptible to DED. DED is an existing entity that can compound any eye condition causing incomplete recovery, and therefore high index of suspicion is greatly advised.

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